Semiconductor wafers are the basic material for manufacturing electronic chips. The most important raw material for semiconductor integrated circuits is silicon, which is widely found in rocks and gravels in the form of silicates or silica in nature. The fabrication process of the semiconductor silicon wafer can be divided into three basic steps: silicon purification and refining, single crystal silicon growth, and wafer formation. The following infographic is provided by Stanford Advanced Materials and describes the manufacturing process for semiconductor wafers.
Further Reading: P-type & N-type Silicon Semiconductors
Semiconductor wafer coating is very important to prolong its life and improve its performance. Stanford Advanced Materials (SAM) Corporation is a global supplier of various sputtering targets used in the semiconductor industry. Please visit https://www.sputtertargets.net/semiconductor-materials/ for more information.