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physical vapor deposition PVD

Physical vapor deposition (PVD) is a widely used thin film fabrication technique. When it comes to this phrase, many people compare it to chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Although the two phrases literally differ by only one word, the difference between them is actually great.

Physical vapor deposition uses physical methods, that is, the transformation of the three states of the substance (gaseous, solid, liquid), so no new substances are produced during the manufacturing process; chemical vapor deposition involves chemical reactions, including the consumption of old materials and the production of new substances. It can be seen that physical vapor deposition has almost no pollution, so in the current “environmentally-friendly” society, physical vapor deposition is increasingly favored by people. Let SAM Sputter Target give you a detailed introduction to physical vapor deposition.

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) is a thin film preparation technique that physically vaporizes the surface of a material source (solid or liquid) into gaseous atoms, molecules or partially ionized into ions under vacuum conditions. Then, a film having a specific function is deposited on the surface of the substrate by a low-pressure gas (or plasma). The main methods of physical vapor deposition include vacuum evaporation, sputtering coating, arc plasma plating, ion plating, and molecular beam epitaxy.

The basic principles of physical vapor deposition technology can be divided into three process steps:

(1) Gasification of the plating material: that is, the plating material is evaporated, dissimilar, or sputtered.

(2) Migration of plating atoms, molecules or ions: a variety of reactions occurs after the collision of atoms, molecules or ions.

(3) The plating atoms, molecules or ions are deposited on the substrate.

The physical vapor deposition technology is simple, environmentally friendly, non-polluting, less consumable, uniform and compact, and strong in binding to the substrate. For specific applications of PVD coating, please see our previous article What are the uses of Physical Vapor Deposition Coating?

Stanford Advanced Materials (SAM) Corporation is a global evaporation material and sputtering target manufacturing company. We provide metals, alloys, oxides and ceramic materials of high quality and at a competitive price. And we regularly update industrial knowledge and news on our website. If you are interested, please visit for more information.



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About the author

Julissa Green graduated from the University of Taxes studying applied chemistry. She started her journalism life as a chemistry specialist in Stanford Advanced Materials (SAM) since 2016 and she has been fascinated by this fast growing industry ever since. If you have any particular topics of interest, or you have any questions, you can reach her at