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Why & How Tungsten Is Used For Furnace Heating?

Why Tungsten is Used for Furnace Heating The decision to use a particular material for heating is a function of the temperature range and conditions the material can tolerate. High-temperature furnaces must be capable of withstanding temperatures that melt materials like titanium. These furnaces, which are typically built of graphite, usually produce reactive carbon pollution...
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PVD Coating: Various Colors are Available

What is PVD Coating? Physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating refers to various coating techniques in which thin layers are created on a substrate using physical techniques. Each technology has a unique set of benefits. PVD coating starts by depositing films with precise stoichiometries to achieve color PVD finishes (ratio of certain elements). Typically, a base...
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Main Methods of PVD Coating

Main Methods of PVD Coating

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) is a thin-film coating technique that physically converts a solid or liquid source of material into gaseous atoms, molecules, or ions under vacuum, which are then deposited on the surface of a substrate to form a thin film. The PVD-coated film has the advantages of fast deposition speed, strong adhesion, good diffraction performance,...
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What is Reactive Sputtering

What is Reactive Sputtering?

If you’ve ever heard of thin film coatings, then you might know about Sputtering! This involves materials being ejected from a source called a “target” onto a “substrate” like a silicon wafer. By injecting a reactive gas (usually oxygen or nitrogen) into the plasma, which is normally created by an inert gas like argon (the...
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What is the Chemical Symbol for Bismuth

What is the Chemical Symbol for Bismuth?

Introduction of Bismuth Bismuth, with the chemical symbol Bi, is an important element found naturally in compounds, known as ores. Bismuth is a high-density, silvery metal with a pink tinge. Even though it is a heavy metal, bismuth has very low toxicity. This has to lead to it being a replacement for lead. Bismuth metal is...
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Everything You Need to Know About AZO Sputtering Targets

Everything You Need to Know About AZO Sputtering Targets

What is an AZO Sputtering Target? AZO sputtering targets are also referred to as aluminum-doped zinc oxide sputtering targets. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide is a transparent conducting oxide. This oxide is insoluble in water but is thermally stable. AZO sputtering targets are typically used for thin-film deposition. Doping is a process that involves intentionally adding impurities...
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An Introduction to Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD)

An Introduction to Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD)

What is Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD)? Pulse laser deposition is a method of physical vapor deposition. In this process, a high-power pulsed laser beam is centered on a target within the vacuum chamber. The laser beam vaporizes the target material and deposits it as a thin film on a substrate. The process involves evaporation, ablation,...
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An Introduction to Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP)

What is Hot Isostatic Pressing? Hot isostatic pressing is one of the methods popularly used to process chemical materials. In this method, a material is compressed in a furnace at temperatures between 1173 K to 2523 K and pressures between 100 to 200 MPa. It is quite similar to another process known as hot pressing....
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An Introduction to Cold Isostatic Pressing (CIP)

An Introduction to Cold Isostatic Pressing (CIP)

What is Cold Isostatic Pressing (CIP)? Cold isostatic pressing is a method of processing materials. It is quite similar to another process known as metal mold processing. CIP functions based on a principle proposed by Blaise Pascal. This principle is popularly known as Pascal’s law and it states that pressure applied in an enclosed fluid...
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